The Trans-border rivers flowing from China to India fall into two main groups. 1) The Brahmaputra river system on the Eastern side, which consist of river Siang (main stream of river Brahmaputra) and its tributaries, namely Subansiri and Lohit. The river Brahmaputra is called Yaluzangbu or Tsangpo in China. 1) The Indus river system on the Western side consists of river Indus and the river Sutlej.
In the year 2002, the Government of India had entered into a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with China for five years upon provision of Hydrological information on Yaluzangbu /Brahmaputra River during flood season by China to India. In accordance with the provisions contained in the MoU, the Chinese side are providing hydrological information (Water Level, Discharge and Rainfall) to Indian authorities on regular basis. MoUs in this connection are being extended from time to time.
During the visit of Hon’ble Prime Minister of India to China in October 2013, both the countries also signed a separate “Memorandum of Understanding on Strengthening Cooperation on Trans-Border Rivers” on 23rd October 2013, in which inter alia the scope of provision of hydrological information of three hydrological stations has also been enhanced.
During the visit of Hon’ble Prime Minister of China to India in December, 2010, a MoU upon provision of hydrological information of Sutlej/Langqen Zangbo River during flood season by China to India was signed with China on 16th December, 2010 with a validity of five years. The Implementation Plan containing technical details of provision of hydrological information, data transmission method and cost settlement etc. in respect of the MoU on River Sutlej was signed between the two countries in April, 2011 at Beijing, China.During the recent visit of Hon’ble Vice President of the People’s Republic of China in November, 2015 a MoU has been renewed on 06.11.2015 with a validity of further five years. Accordingly, implementation plan on River Sutlej signed on 13thApril, 2016 during the 10th ELM meeting held at New Delhi, India.
During the visit of the Hon’ble President of the People’s Republic of China to India in November 20-23, 2006, it was agreed to set up an Expert-Level Mechanism to discuss interaction and cooperation on provision of flood season hydrological data, emergency management and other issues regarding trans-border Rivers as agreed between them. Accordingly, the two sides have set up the Joint Expert Level Mechanism.