During the post independence era, a large number of irrigation projects were constructed for increasing agricultural production in the country. However, during early seventies analysis of irrigation potential created and utilised revealed that there was a substantial gap between them. The Irrigation Commission made specific recommendations in its report in 1972 that systematic development of commands of irrigation projects should be taken up in order to fully utilise the irrigation potential created. Subsequently a Committee of Ministers set up by the Ministry of Irrigation and Power analysed the issue and suggested in 1973 that a broad based Area Development Authority should be set up for every major irrigation project to undertake the work of comprehensive area development. Based on this recommendation, the Government of India initiated a Centrally Sponsored Command Area Development Programme (CADP) in December 1974 to improve irrigation potential utilisation and optimise agricultural production from irrigated land through integrated and coordinated approach of efficient water management.
In tune with objectives of the programme a number of components such as construction of field channels and field drains, enforcement of warabandi, land levelling and shaping, realignment of field boundaries/ consolidation of holdings, introduction of suitable cropping patterns, strengthening of extension services etc. were included in the programme. Subsequently, in view of emergent needs a few more components like farmers’ participation and reclamation of waterlogged areas were included in the programme with effect from 1st April, 1996 to make the programme more beneficial to the farmers.
Review of the Programme implementation during the VIII and IX Five Year Plan periods revealed that micro level distribution network for supply of water to individual holdings had been created in about 16 million ha and rotational supply of irrigation water had been enforced in about 11 million ha. A number of constraints such as unreliability of water supply at the outlet due to deficiencies in the irrigation system above the outlet, absence of link and intermediate drains to let out surplus water into main drains, non-inclusion of minor irrigation projects from non- hilly areas, low priority by the State Governments to extension and training activities, non-revision of cost norms for various activities since VIII Plan etc. were also noticed during the review. In view of these constraints the programme has been restructured for the remaining period of X Plan (2004-07) and renamed as ‘Command Area Development and Water Management Programme (CADWM Programme)’ to make it more comprehensive and beneficial to farmers. The scheme has been implemented as a State Sector Scheme during the XI Five Year Plan (2008-09 to 2011-12) and initial two years of XII Plan. During XII Plan, the CADWM programme has been implemented pari-passu with Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme (AIBP). The programme is being implemented under Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojna (PMKSY) - Har Khet Ko Pani from 2015-16. The ongoing CADWM programme has now been restricted to implementation of CAD works of 99 prioritized AIBP projects.
Initially, 60 major and medium irrigation projects were taken up under the CAD Programme, covering a Culturable Command Area (CCA) of about 15.00 million hectare. At the end of FY 2015-16, there were 158 ongoing projects spread across the 29 States of the country with CCA of 16.3 Mha. Completion of CAD works of 99 prioritised AIBP projects only are being targeted from 2016-17 onwards under Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKY)–Har Khet Ko Pani. Out of 99 prioritised AIBP projects, CAD works of 40 AIBP projects are being implemented at present. The remaining projects will be included on receipt of Project Reports from the respective States. Funding of CAD works is being made through NABARD borrowing under Long Term Irrigation Fund loan. The culturable Command Area (CCA) of about 72 Lakh hectares with an estimated cost of Rs.29049 crore has been targeted for implementation of CAD works of 99 prioritised AIBP projects.
During 2016-17, the Cabinet has approved establishment of the PMKSY Mission to ensure completion of 99 prioritized projects in phases by Dec., 2019 including completion of CAD&WM works. The arrangement of funds for Central share/ or central Assistance (CA) has been made by taking loan from NABARD as per year-wise requirements.
The Finance Minister has created a dedicated Long Term Irrigation Fund (LTIF) in NABARD with an initial corpus of about Rs.20,000 Crore during 2016-17. Accordingly funding of Central Assistance and State share for above mentioned 99 projects along with CAD works is being made through NABARD. The Finance Minister in his budget speech for FY 2017-18 has now enhanced the corpus upto Rs.40,000 Crore