The projects for flood management and control are formulated and implemented by respective state governments/Union Territories from their own resources and as per their priority. Central Government provides financial assistance to states/UTs for implementing some projects in critical areas. Central Govt. has been providing financial assistance through a scheme called Flood Management Programme (FMP) since XI Plan. The scheme since its inception has undergone several changes as per demands of states/UTs and also on account of various directions and policies of Govt. of India.
FLOOD MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME (FMP)
During X Plan, following four schemes were sanctioned to provide central assistance to the flood prone states to take up flood control and river management works in critical areas:
(a) Critical Anti-erosion works in Ganga Basin States (a Centrally Sponsored Scheme)
(b) Critical Flood Control and Anti Erosion Schemes in Brahmaputra and Barak Valley States (a State Sector Scheme),
(c) Improvement of Drainage in critical areas in the country (a State Sector Scheme) and
(d) Critical Anti-erosion Works in Coastal and other than Ganga Basin States (a State SectorScheme).
The Flood Management Programme (FMP) was implemented during XI Plan with an outlay of Rs. 8000 crore after subsuming above four schemes. Under the Programme, central assistance was provided to State Governments for taking up works related to river management, flood control, anti-erosion, drainage development, flood proofing, restoration of damaged flood management works and anti-sea erosion. The pattern of funding was 90 % (Centre): 10 O/o (State) for Special Category States and 75 O/o (Centre): 25 % (State) for General/ Non-Special Category States. During XI Plan, 420 works with a total estimated cost of Rs.7857.08 crore were approved under FMP. Central assistance to the States/UTs to the tune of Rs. 3566.00 crore was released during this plan period.
During XII Plan, the Government of India approved continuation of “Flood Management Programme” with an outlay of Rs.10000 crore. The funding pattern under the Scheme for the special Category States covering the North Eastern States, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Uttarakhand was 70% (Centre) :30% (State) and for General States — 50% (Centre) : 50% (State).The project eligibility criteria for inclusion under the Scheme for special Category States was projects with estimated cost Rs 10 crore and above with Benefit Cost ratio more than1.0 and for General States it was Rs. 40 crore and above with Benefit Cost ratio more than 1.0. The inclusion of projects, inter-se priority of the works etc. was decided through an Inter-Ministerial Committee headed by Secretary (Water Resources), Government of India. During XII Plan (up to 31-03-2017),102 works with a total estimated cost of Rs.5381.28 crore were approved under FMP. Central assistance to the States/UTs to the tune of Rs.1307.07 crore was released during this plan period. Thus total release during XI & XII Plan under FMP was Rs 4873.07Crores.
RIVER MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES AND WORKS RELATED TO BORDER AREAS (RMBA)
During XI Plan, Government of India had approved implementation of the Central SectorScheme“RiverManagementActivitiesandWorksrelatedtoBorderAreas”with a total outlay of Rs 820 crore for taking up non-structural measures such as Hydrological Observation and Flood Forecasting works on common border rivers, payment to neighboring countries (China) for supplying HO data on common rivers, investigation of WR projects in neighbouring countries, activities of GFCC and Pancheswar Development Authority (PDA) was funded through this scheme. In addition to above activities, 100% Central Assistance was also provided for taking up structural measures such as Anti Erosion/Flood Management schemes on rivers on international borders and UnionTerritories.
The Scheme was continued during XII Plan, with a total outlay of Rs 740.0 crore to cover the following continuing and new activities.
a) Hydrological observations and flood forecasting on common border rivers with neighbouring countries
b) Investigations & Pre-construction activities for WR projects on common border rivers,
c) Pancheshwar Development Authority(PDA),
d) Grant in Aid to States/UTs for flood management/anti -sea erosionworks,
e) Maintenance of flood protection works of Kosi & Gandak projects (in Nepal),
f) Flood Protection/anti-erosion works in the border areas with Bangladesh and Pakistan by States and Flood Management/anti-erosion works/anti-sea erosion works in UTs,
g) Activities of Ganga Flood Control Commission(GFCC).
The RMBA being specific to activities in border areas with neighboring countries viz. Bangladesh, Nepal, China, Pakistan and Bhutan and for taking up Anti Erosion/Flood Management schemes on rivers on international borders and Union Territories, the projects/ works are funded with 100% central assistance. A Grant-in-Aid of Rs 563.61Crores (Rs 340.41 Crores-XI Plan &Rs 223.20 Crores-XII Plan) were released to various states under this Scheme.
FLOOD MANAGEMENT AND BORDER AREAS PROGRAMME (FMBAP)
The Outcome review/Third party evaluation of the two Plan Schemes 'Flood Management Programme (FMP)' and 'River Management Activities & Works related to Border Areas (RMBA)' implemented during XII Plan was carried out by a Committee constituted under the chairmanship of Director, National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee. The Outcome Review/Third Party Evaluation Committee recommended that only those schemes which are very critical for long-term protection against floods, costing above Rs. 40 crore, may be considered for funding by Union Government under Flood Management Programme. Other schemes/ works may be taken up by the concerned State Governments through State Plan allocation. Since the FMP and RMBA schemes have common nature to some extent, the modalities for merging the two schemes in a hybrid/ umbrella scheme may be explored and both the schemes may be merged into a single scheme.
For the period 2017-18 to 2019-20, a comprehensive scheme titled “Flood Management and Border Areas Programme (FMBAP)”with an outlay of Rs 3342.00Cr (FMP-Rs 2642 Cr & RMBA-Rs 700 Cr) with merged components from the XII Plan Schemes viz. Flood Management Programme (FMP) and River Management Activities & Works related to Border Areas (RMBA) schemes was approved by the Union Cabinet.
The funding pattern for works in general category states under FMP component remained as 50 % (Centre): 50 % (State) and for projects of 8 North Eastern States, J&K, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, the funding pattern continued to be 70 % (Centre):30%(State).Whereas,RMBAcomponentbeingspecifictoactivitiesinborder areas with neighboring countries viz. Bangladesh, Nepal, China, Pakistan and Bhutan the funding pattern continued as 100% central assistance.
During the period 2017-18 to 2020-21, Rs.1574.68 Crore has been released as Grant- in Aid to the States under FMP component and Rs. 527.82 Crore has been spent under RMBA component of FMBAP thereby making a total of Rs. 2102.5 Crores.
The projects completed so far under the Scheme have provided flood protection to an area of 4.987 Mha and benefitted population of 51.97 million. This protected area also includes restoration of earlier protected area by means of works like raising & strengthening of embankments etc.
SALIENT FEATURES OF FMBAP
Some of the salient features of FMBAP Scheme as approved by Union Cabinet for the period 2017-18 to 2019-20 are-
(i) FMBAP Scheme is for completion of the spill over works in respect of 83 ongoing projects as well as for the works which are completed and included earlier under FMP during XI & XII Plan. Also, asassessed/ required and dropping 16 ongoing projects in which the current work progress is less than 50 percent.
(ii) The Scheme has a provision only for clearing the committed liabilities of ongoing and completed projects as per extant XI/ XII Plan guidelines and that no new project to be included under FM component of FMBAP Scheme till then.
(iii) In this Scheme, Administrative Ministry has been authorized to decide inter sub- component and inter-item redistribution of provisions within the overall cost of the respective components of FM (Rs. 2642 crore) and RMBA (Rs. 700 crore) under the Scheme.
(iv) The techno-economic Appraisal and Investment Clearance of flood management works under FMBAP continued to be done as per the procedures laid down by Department of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation.
(v) The Inter-Ministerial Committee (IMC) headed by Secretary (WR, RD & GR) with members drawn from Ministry of Finance (Department of Expenditure), Planning Commission (Now NITI Aayog) and other line Ministries / Departments/Organisations constituted during XII Plan to be continued under the scheme for FMP component. For the works under RMBA component, the procedure is proposed to be in accordance with the bilateral mechanism with neighboringcountries.
(vi) For release of Central assistance to State Government for Projects included under FMP, detailed guidelines of DoWR,RD&GR of October,2013 describing procedures about submission of documents, budget provisions, Utilisation Certificates, monitoring reports, Concurrent Report, instalments for release of central share to States, etc is followed.
FMBAP SCHEME FOR THE PERIOD 2021-26
There has been consistent demand from all the flood prone states that Government of India should continue to provide financial assistance to flood management projects in the States and new projects should be included for central funding. It is, accordingly, recommended that FMBAP scheme may be continued for the period 2021-26, i.e., co-terminous with 15th Finance Commission.